5 Principles of Prayer

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5 Principles of Prayer

“Just as the prayer has been built upon 5 principles: Qira’ah (recitation), Qiyam(standing), Rukoo‘ (bowing), Sujood (prostration) and Dhikr (remembrance), it has also been named as such.

The prayer has been called ‘Qiyam‘ in the verse:

قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً
Stand (to pray) all night, except a little.” [al-Muzzammil: 2]

And in:

وَقُومُواْ لِلّهِ قَانِتِينَ
“… And stand before Allah with obedience” [al-Baqarah: 238]

It has been called Qira’ah in:

وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُوداً
“… and recite the Qur’an in the early dawn (i.e. the morning prayer). Verily, the recitation of the Qur’an in the early dawn is ever witnessed.”[al-Isra: 78]

And:

فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ
“… So recite as much of the Quran as may be easy…” [al-Muzzammil: 20]

It has also been termed ‘Rukoo‘ in:

وَارْكَعُواْ مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ
“… And bow down along with the Raki’un (those who bow in prayer).” [al-Baqarah: 43]

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ ارْكَعُوا لَا يَرْكَعُونَ
“And when it is said to them: “Bow down yourself (in prayer)!” They bow not down.” [al-Mursalat: 48]

And again it’s been named Sujood in:

فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ
“So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).” [al-Hijr: 98]

وَاسْجُدْ وَاقْتَرِبْ
“… Fall prostrate and draw near to Allah!” [al-‘Alaq: 19]

And finally it has been called Dhikr in:

فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ
“… come to the remembrance of Allah (i.e. the Friday prayer)…” [al-Jumu’ah: 9]

لَا تُلْهِكُمْ أَمْوَالُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ
“… Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah (i.e. prayer).” [al-Munafiqun: 9]

Ibn al-Qayyim: ‘The most honourable of actions (in the salah) is the sujood and the most honourable of adhkar (words of remembrance) is recitation. The first chapter revealed to the Prophet (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) was:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ
“Read in the Name of your Lord…” [al-‘Alaq]

It begins with the command to read and it ends with the command to prostrate. So each unit of prayer has been established upon this, its first part is recitation and its end is that of prostration.’

[‘Asrar al-Salat’, by Ibn al-Qayyim]

ref: http://fajr.wordpress.com/2009/06/25/5-principles-of-prayer/

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